Charles Seligman Beatrice Blackwood PRM Museum John Hutton Henry Balfour Edward Tylor Augustus Fox

PRM Asia collection statistics up to 1945 Part II

6. Total number of objects accessioned from each country broken down into decades

[article ID:244]

Asia in general:

1880s - 5,324

1890s - 6,499

1900s - 5,294

1910s - 4,003

1920s - 8,895

1930s - 6,828

1940 - 1945 - 3,266

Afghanistan

1880s - 26

1890s - 12

1900s - 12

1910s - 3

1920s - 10

1930s - 5

1940 - 1945 - 6

The peak in the 1880s is due to the usual internal OU transfers, the founding collection and some objects from RC Temple

Andaman Islands India

1880s - 513

1890s - 13

1900s - 84

1910s - 5

1920s - 2

1930s - 89

1940 - 1945 - 10

It is obvious to anyone who knows anything about our Andaman Islands collections that the vast majority of them came in from EH Man (either via the founding collection or OUMNH) in the 1880s. Andaman Islands were part of British Empire throughout this period

Armenia

1900s - 2

1910s - 3

1940 - 1945 - 2

Azerbaijan

1900s - 2

The only 2 items from Azerbaijan were from the same collector Michel de Bernoff

Bahrain

1890s - 5

All the Bahrain objects come from James Theodore Bent [field collector and donor)

Bangladesh [definite only]

1880s - 3

1890s - 26

1900s - 0

1910s - 3

1920s - 138

1930s - 15

1940 - 1945 - 0

The vast majority of the 1920s peak is due to objects collected and donated by JP Mills. Bangladesh was part of British Empire throughout this period

Bhutan

1880s - 2

1890s - 0

1900s - 1

1910s - 4

1920s - 1

1930s - 5

1940 - 1945 - 0

The items from the 1880s are just provenanced Himalayas and therefore are double counted in a number of different countries totals, many of the other Bhutanese entries might also be India, Tibet or Nepal.

Brunei

1900s - 7

1910s - 3

1920s - 1

1930s - 2

1940 - 1945 - 5

There is some double counting between Brunei and other countries, like Malaysia, there are no particular peaks in the collecting. Brunei became part of British Empire in 1888, there are no objects from there in the PRM collections before 1890 so that fits the pattern, the remainder of the period it was part of the British Empire

Cambodia

1880s - 3

1930s - 3

2 of the 3 1880s entries are specifically Cambodian and from Pitt Rivers

China [excluding HK]

1880s - 815

1890s - 1157

1900s - 400

1910s - 348

1920s - 379

1930s - 383

1940 - 1945 - 290

A large percentage of the peak in the 1880s is due to the Pitt Rivers founding collection and the Ashmolean transfers, a large part of the 1890s peak is due to the collection from RT Turley

China [Hong Kong]

1880s - 1

1890s - 36

1900s - 1

1940 - 1945 - 26

The 1940s peak is mainly due to a WL Hildburgh donation, all but one of the 1890s peak was collected and donated by RC Templ. Hong Kong was part of British Empire throughout this period

East Timor

1880s - 13

1890s - 0

1900s - 0

1910s - 1

1920s - 3

1930s - 1

1940 - 1945 - 0

The 1880s peak is due to the founding collection and transfers from the Ashmolean

Georgia

1880s - 1

1900s - 8

1910s - 7

India [entries that are definitely India]

1880s - 1,611

1890s - 1,787

1900s - 607

1910s - 755

1920s - 6,337

1930s - 1,711

1940 - 1945 - 805

The enormous peak in the 1920s is due to the accession of vast collections from both JH Hutton and JP Mills. These items in fact were not all collected or even received by the Museum in the 1920s (in particular for Hutton many were collected before 1920) but were accessioned under two late 1920s accession numbers as a batch lot. India was part of British Empire throughout this period

Indonesia

1880s - 83

1890s - 181

1900s - 201

1910s - 68

1920s - 39

1930s - 91

1940 - 1945 - 122

Iran

1880s - 36

1890s - 40

1900s - 3

1910s - 28

1920s - 27

1930s - 32

1940 - 1945 - 18

Iraq

1880s - 16

1890s - 18

1900s - 3

1910s - 6

1920s - 50

1930s - 94

1940 - 1945 - 16

This really does seem to match the colonial pattern as the numbers start peaking just as colonial rules sets in in 1921, that rule ended in 1932 with independence, as the 1930s had the highest peak of accessions from this country the pattern does not seem to fit the colonial pattern

Israel

1880s - 24

1890s - 7

1900s - 91

1910s - 13

1920s - 158

1930s - 2386

1940 - 1945 - 110

The 1930s peak is due to the large number of archaeological items from Garrod and the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem. British control of Palestine started in 1918 and the highest peaks of accessions from that area do indeed occur in the 1930s and 1940s

Japan

1880s - 335

1890s - 889

1900s - 1,328

1910s - 850

1920s - 240

1930s - 415

1940 - 1945 - 202

A large number of the more important or sizeable PRM Japanese collections came in in the 1900s

Jordan

1880s - 7

1890s - 3

1900s - 38

1910s - 8

1920s - 7

1930s - 48

1940 - 1945 - 104

Numbers do increase slightly from the 1930s but the effect of colonialisation in 1921 does not seem very apparent. British control of Palestine started in 1918 and the highest peaks of accessions from that area do indeed occur in the 1930s and 1940s

Kazakhstan

1900s - 1

1920s - 1

1940 - 1945 - 1

Korea

1880s - 47

1890s - 133

1900s - 257

1910s - 73

1920s - 33

1930s - 27

1940 - 1945 - 19

Kuwait

1910s - 2

From the same donor at the same time AH Baldwin, these are the only Kuwaiti objects, under British protection throughout period in question but this is obviously not reflecte din the accessions from there!

Laos

1900s - 3

1910s - 1

1920s - 10

1930s - 5

1940 - 1945 - 1

Lebanon

1880s - 1

1890s - 2

1900s - 2

1910s - 0

1920s - 1

1930s - 45

27 of the 45 Lebanese objects acquired during 1930s were donated by Henry Balfour

Macau

1890s - 110

All the Macau objects were donated in the 1890s

Malaysia

1880s - 109

1890s - 514

1900s - 737

1910s - 243

1920s - 847

1930s - 196

1940 - 1945 - 634

'Proper' British control of Malaysia began in 1896 and this is reflected in the accession statistics

Maldives

1890s - 1

The single Maldives object was donated by Cuthbert Peek, the Maldives were controlled from 1887 but a single object cannot really reflect a pattern!

Mongolia

1880s - 0

1890s - 208

1900s - 90

1910s - 2

1920s - 3

1930s - 11

1940 - 1945 - 1

The peak in the 1890s is due to the collection from RT Turley

Myanmar (Burma)

1880s - 895

1890s - 1,097

1900s - 179

1910s - 159

1920s - 229

1930s - 401

1940 - 1945 - 89

The vast majority of the Burmese 1880s and 1890s collections were collected and donated by RC Temple, colonial control of Burma began in 1885 and ended in 1937, this appears to be reflected in the statistics

Nepal

1880s - 40

1890s - 2

1900s - 13

1910s - 1

1920s - 41

1930s - 44

1940 - 1945 - 26

Nicobar Islands India

1880s - 531

1890s - 33

1900s - 18

1910s - 1

1920s - 0

1930s - 22

1940 - 1945 - 0

The peak in the 1880s is due to the Man Nicobar collection, the Nicobar Islands were part of the British Empire throughout this period

Oman

1880s - 1

1940 - 1945 - 1

Pakistan

1880s - 45

1890s - 8

1900s - 12

1910s - 24

1920s - 9

1930s - 41

1940 - 1945 - 70

Pakistan was part of British Empire throughout this period

Palestine

1880s - 23

1890s - 1

1900s - 44

1910s - 6

1920s - 72

1930s - 107

1940 - 1945 - 108

British control of Palestine started in 1918 and the highest peaks of accessions from that area do indeed occur in the 1930s and 1940s

Philippines

1880s - 10

1890s - 0

1900s - 34

1910s - 79

1920s - 9

1930s - 25

1940 - 1945 - 6

A collection from Mrs Turnbull [collected by her son] dominates the 1910s peak

Russia [Siberia]

1880s - 4

1890s - 2

1900s - 2

1910s - 198

1920s - 3

1930s - 6

1940 - 1945 - 4

The 1910s peak is due to the collection from Czaplicka

Saudi Arabia

1880s - 3

1890s - 17

1900s - 1

1910s - 0

1920s - 0

1930s - 1

1940 - 1945 - 3

William Crooke's collection is responsible for the peak in the 1890s

Singapore

1880s - 15

1890s - 85

1900s - 1

1910s - 16

1920s - 6

1930s - 9

1940 - 1945 - 1

A collection from Henry Nicholas Ridley is mainly responsible for peak in 1890s. 'Proper' British control of Singapore began in 1824 and this is partly reflected in the accession statistics

Sri Lanka

1880s - 94

1890s - 26

1900s - 51

1910s - 608

1920s - 31

1930s - 86

1940 - 1945 - 560

The reason for the 1940s peak is that there are a series of Seligman donations which are not clearly numbered and for which guesstimates of 100 a piece have been made, the 1910s peak is due to a collection from Charles Hartley. Sri Lanka was part of the British Empire throughout this period

Syria

1880s - 6

1890s - 9

1900s - 29

1910s - 82

1920s - 23

1930s - 36

1940 - 1945 - 7

A collection from HH Spoer seems to have contributed to the 1910s peak

Taiwan

1880s - 2

1890s - 90

1900s - 23

1910s - 1

1920s - 16

1930s - 21

1940 - 1945 - 0

The peak in the 1890s is mainly due to a collection from PE Matheson [and some from PE O'Brien Butler

Thailand

1880s - 11

1890s - 256

1900s - 861

1910s - 28

1920s - 96

1930s - 35

1940 - 1945 - 3

The 1900s peak is due to the Annandale collection

Tibet

1880s - 19

1890s - 11

1900s - 118

1910s - 94

1920s - 68

1930s - 82

1940 - 1945 - 82

Turkey

1880s - 88

1890s - 41

1900s - 29

1910s - 19

1920s - 124

1930s - 24

1940 - 1945 - 18

The 1880s peak is due to objects from the founding collection and the Ashmolean, the 1920s peak may be due to the collection from RM Dawkins

Uzbekistan

1880s - 1

1890s - 1

1940 - 1945 - 10

The 1940s 'peak' is due to the collection from the PalestineFolk Musuem, which in fact was later returned

Vietnam

1880s - 3

1890s - 13

1900s - 4

1910s - 1

1920s - 2

1930s - 3

1940 - 1945 - 0

The '1890s peak' is due to a collection from the Rosset expedition via the BM

Yemen

1880s - 2

1890s - 6

1900s - 9

1910s - 3

1920s - 0

1930s - 17

1940 - 1945 - 6

The 1930s 'peak' is due to a collection from AW Fuller. Yemen was a colony throughout this time period

British India

1880s - 561

1890s - 260

1900s - 233

1910s - 231

1920s - 98

1930s - 328

1940 - 1945 - 97

The British were in control of India throughout this period and the uncertainty about provenancing these items probably reflects this as these objects could come from India, Pakistan or Bangladesh

7. Total number of objects obtained from each country divided into Archaeology and Ethnology

[article ID:245]

General Asia:

Definite archaeology - 5,871

Definite ethnography - 33,736

Arch or ethn - 624

Asia has a much higher percentage of ethnographic objects than globally (83 from 56 per cent) and a comcomitant decrease in archaeology items (from 34 to 15 per cent) and unclear items (from 10 to 2 per cent)

Afghanistan

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 72

Arch or ethn - 2

Afghani objects are almost 100 per cent ethnographic

Andaman Islands India

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 813

Arch or ethn - 13

Andaman Islands objects are almost 100 per cent ethnographic

Armenia

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 7

Arch or ethn - 0

Armenian objects are 100 per cent ethnographic

Azerbaijan

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 2

Arch or ethn - 0

Azerbaijani objects are 100 per cent ethnographic

Bahrain

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 5

Arch or ethn - 0

Bahrain objects are 100 per cent ethnographic

Bangladesh

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 185

Arch or ethn - 0

Bangladeshi objects are 100 per cent ethnographic

Bhutan

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 13

Arch or ethn - 0

Bhutanese objects are 100 per cent ethnographic

Brunei

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 19

Arch or ethn - 0

Brunei objects are 100 per cent ethnographic

Cambodia

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 6

Arch or ethn - 0

Cambodian objects are 100 per cent ethnographic

China

Definite archaeology - 55

Definite ethnography - 3,674

Arch or ethn - 37

Chinese objects are overwhelmingly ethnographic

China [Hong Kong]

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 64

Arch or ethn - 0

All Hong Kong objects are ethnographic

East Timor

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 18

Arch or ethn - 0

East Timorese objects are 100 per cent ethnographic

Georgia

Definite archaeology - 1

Definite ethnography - 15

Arch or ethn - 0

Georgian objects are almost 100 per cent ethnographic

India

Definite archaeology - 1,058

Definite ethnography - 12,506

Arch or ethn - 155

Even Indian collections which have a sizeable archaeological component are overwhelmingly ethnographically orientated

Indonesia

Definite archaeology - 1

Definite ethnography - 783

Arch or ethn - 1

Indonesian objects are almost 100 per cent ethnographic

Iran

Definite archaeology - 4

Definite ethnography - 178

Arch or ethn - 2

Iranian objects are almost 100 per cent ethnographic

Iraq

Definite archaeology - 176

Definite ethnography - 26

Arch or ethn - 1

Finally a country that bucks the trends, Iraq is overwhelmingly archaeological in content

Israel

Definite archaeology - 2,474

Definite ethnography - 309

Arch or ethn - 6

And another trend bucker - Israeli collections are also overwhelmingly archaeological

Japan

Definite archaeology - 509

Definite ethnography - 3,754

Arch or ethn - 0

Though Japan has a reasonable archaeological collection it is still dominated by ethnography

Jordan

Definite archaeology - 34

Definite ethnography - 176

Arch or ethn - 5

Kazakhstan

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 3

Arch or ethn - 0

Kazakh objects are 100 per cent ethnographic

Korea

Definite archaeology - 44

Definite ethnography - 541

Arch or ethn - 4

Korean objects are almost all ethnographic, with a small archaeological collection

Kuwait

Definite ethnography - 2

All Kuwaiti objects are ethnographic

Laos

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 20

Arch or ethn - 0

Laotian objects are 100 per cent ethnographic

Lebanon

Definite archaeology - 21

Definite ethnography - 30

Arch or ethn - 0

Lebanese collections are much more evenly split between ethnography and archaeological collections than other Asian collections

Macau

Definite ethnography - 110

All the Macau objects are ethnographic

Malaysia

Definite archaeology - 71

Definite ethnography - 3,043

Arch or ethn - 166

Malaysian objects are almost entirely ethnographic

Maldives

Definite ethnography - 2

All Maldives objects are ethnographic

Mongolia

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 314

Arch or ethn - 1

Mongolian objects are almost 100 per cent ethnographic

Myanmar (Burma)

Definite archaeology - 74

Definite ethnography - 2,944

Arch or ethn - 20

Burmese objects are almost 100 per cent ethnographic

Nepal

Definite archaeology - 1

Definite ethnography - 166

Arch or ethn - 0

Nepalese objects are almost 100 per cent ethnographic

Nicobar Islands India

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 605

Arch or ethn - 0

Nicobar objects are 100 per cent ethnographic

Oman

Definite ethnography - 2

all Omani objects are ethnographic

Pakistan

Definite archaeology - 36

Definite ethnography - 166

Arch or ethn - 27

Palestine

Definite archaeology - 103

Definite ethnography - 256

Arch or ethn - 3

roughly a third of the Palestinian collections are archaeological

Philippines

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 163

Arch or ethn - 0

Filipino objects are 100 per cent ethnographic

Russia [Siberia]

Definite archaeology - 25

Definite ethnography - 193

Arch or ethn - 1

Siberian objects are largely ent ethnographic

Saudi Arabia

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 25

Arch or ethn - 0

Saudi objects are 100 per cent ethnographic

Singapore

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 133

Arch or ethn - 0

Singapore objects are 100 per cent ethnographic

Sri Lanka

Definite archaeology - 1,095

Definite ethnography - 360

Arch or ethn - 1

Another of the few countries that buck the trend of ethnographic domination, three quarters of the Sri Lankan collections are archaeological

Syria

Definite archaeology - 24

Definite ethnography - 164

Arch or ethn - 4

Syrian objects are dominated by ethnographic

Taiwan

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 153

Arch or ethn - 0

Taiwanese objects are 100 per cent ethnographic

Thailand

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 1,287

Arch or ethn - 3

Thai objects are almost 100 per cent ethnographic

Tibet

Definite archaeology - 2

Definite ethnography - 472

Arch or ethn - 0

Tibetan objects are almost 100 per cent ethnographic

Turkey

Definite archaeology - 58

Definite ethnography - 284

Arch or ethn - 2

Turkish objects are almost entirely ethnographic

Uzbekistan

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 12

Arch or ethn - 0

Uzbeki objects are 100 per cent ethnographic

Vietnam

Definite archaeology - 0

Definite ethnography - 26

Arch or ethn - 0

Vietnamese objects are 100 per cent ethnographic

Yemen

Definite archaeology - 3

Definite ethnography - 40

Arch or ethn - 0

British India

Definite archaeology - 30

Definite ethnography - 1,751

Arch or ethn - 27

The Indian subcontinent entries that are not sufficiently well provenanced to one country are overwhelmingly ethnographic

British India figures as a whole:

Arch or Eth

Andamans

Bangladesh

India

Nicobars

Pakistan

British India

Total

Arch

0

0

1,058

0

36

30

1,124

Eth

813

185

12,506

605

166

1,751

16,026

Arch or Ethn

13

0

155

0

27

27

222

Conclusion:

Many of the Asian countries have no archaeological collections at all, the countries that do are: China, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Lebanon, Malaysia, Burma, Nepal, Pakistan, Siberia, Sri Lanka, Syria, Tibet, Turkey, Yemen and 'British India'

And of these Georgia , Indonesia and Nepal only have one archaeological object each.

Iraq, Israel, Sri Lanka have collections dominated by archaeology.

Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, Hong Kong, East Timor, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Laos, Macau, Maldives, Nicobar Islands, Oman, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Taiwan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam all only have ethnographic objects in their collections up to 1945

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The financial support of this project by the ESRC is gratefully acknowledged.