Charles Seligman Beatrice Blackwood PRM Museum John Hutton Henry Balfour Edward Tylor Augustus Fox

Geographical Statistics PRM Asia collections statistics summary

Asian countries and colonies

[article ID:9]

Aden

*1839 – annexed as dependency of British India

1937 – becomes British Crown Colony

1963 – ceases to be British Crown Colony

1967 – independence as part of People's Republic of South Yemen and later Yemen (when north and south unify)

Bahrain

*1861 – becomes part of a British Protectorate

1971 – independence

British North Borneo

*1882 – becomes a British protectorate

1963 – becomes known as Sabah and joins independent Malaysia

Brunei

*1888 – becomes British Protectorate, with Sultan retaining power

1983 – independence; now called Brunei Durrasalem

Burma

*1826 – First Anglo-Burmese War results in annexation of Assam, >Arakan, and Tenasserim

*1852 – Second Anglo-Burmese War results in annexation of Pegu and Irrawaddy Delta

1862 – Assam is incorporated back into Bengal and the other states are linked together to form British Lower Burma, administered from India

*1885 – Third Anglo-Burmese War results in annexation of whole country as province of India

1937 – granted separate colonial status and limited self-government (i.e. no longer part of British India)

[1942-1945 – Japanese]

1947 – independence

Ceylon

*1796 – annexed by East India Company

1802 – declared a British colony

1815 – Kandyan Kingdom fully vanquished

1948 – independence as Sri Lanka

East Pakistan

*1799 – Mysore capital is captured, and East India Company effectively controls Benares, Bihar and Bengal

1858 – Crown takes over the government of India from the East India Company; note that India was administered separately from rest of Empire with its own civil service and its own Secretary of State

1862 – Assam separated from Burma and incorporated back into Bengal

1905 – British partition Bengal into East and West, the East being mostly Muslim

1912 – East and West Bengal briefly reunite

1947 – East Bengal becomes independent from UK as East Pakistan, a region of Pakistan

1972 – East Pakistan becomes internationally recognised as Bangladesh, independent from Pakistan

Hong Kong

*1841 – seized by British during Opium Wars

1842 – formally ceded to Britain under Treaty of Nanking

1843 - becomes Crown Colony

1860 – Kowloon and Stonecutters Island are added to territory

1898 – New Territories acquired on 99 year lease from China

[1941-1945 – Japanese]

1997 – all parts of the territory revert back toChina

India

*1793 – permanent British settlement begins in Bengal

1799 – Mysore capital is captured, and East India Company effectively controls Benares, Bihar and Bengal

1831-1841 – war with Afghanistan to protect India

1843 – the Sind falls to the British

1849 – the Punjab falls to the British

1857 – Indian Mutiny

1858 – Crown takes over the government of India from the East India Company; note that India was administered separately from rest of Empire with its own civil service and its own Secretary of State

1862 – Assam separated from Burma and incorporated back into Bengal

1877 – Victoria is declared Empress

1878-1880 – war with Afghanistan to protect India

[1904 – British invade Tibet from India]

1947 – independence and partition (see also Pakistan and East Pakistan)

Iraq

*1921 – British mandate

1932 – independence

Kuwait never a part of the British Empire but under British protection 1899-1961

Malaya

before 1896, East India Company has colonised part of it as part of Straits Settlements (Singapore, Malacca, Penang)

*1896 – British Protectorate called Federated Malay States is established (includes Perak, Selangor, Negri, Sembilan, Pahang)

1909 – treaty with Siam (Thailand) establishes 2nd protecorate over Kelantan, Trengganu, Kedah

*1915 – Britain accepts defensive responsibility for Johore which with the 1909 areas becomes the Unfederated Malay States

1948 – the Federation of Malaya is formed (included previous Federated and Unfederated Malay States, except Singapore)

1957 – independence as Malaysia

1963 – Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore join federation

1965 – Singapore withdraws from federation

Maldive Islands

*1887 – become British Protectorate

1965 - independence

Pakistan see India; Pakistan is created as separate country in 1947

Palestine

*1918 – conquered by Britain

1920 – mandated by League of Nations to Britain

1948 – British mandate ends and Israel begins

Sarawak

*1841 – granted by Sultan of Brunei to Sir James Brooke and ruled by his family until 1941

1888 – becomes a British Protectorate

1946 – becomes a Crown Colony

1963 – independence as part of Federation of Malaysia

Singapore

*1819 – Raffles establishes settlement for East India Company

1824 – crown purchases the island from the East India Company

1826-1946 – incorporated into Straits Settlements

[1942-1945: Japanese]

1963 – federated with Malaysia

1965 – withdraws from Malaysia and is independent

Transjordan

*1921 – becomes an emirate under a British mandate

1949 – independence as The Kingdom of Jordan

Qatar

*1916 – becomes a British Protectorate

1971 – full independence

Wei Hai Wei

*1898 – this strategic Chinese city was leased to Britain

1930 – returned to China; now called Wei Hai

Yemen

*1839 – annexed as dependency of British India

1937 – becomes British Crown Colony

1963 – ceases to be British Crown Colony

1967 – independence as part of People's Republic of South Yemen and later Yemen (when north and south unify)

Cocos (Keeling)

Declared British possession in 1857, placed under governor of Ceylon in 1878, attached to the Straits Settlement in 1886 and granted in perpetuity to the Clunies-Ross family. In 1903 the Cocos were attached to Singapore, passed from Singapore to Australia in 1955, in 1978 the owner John Clunies-Ross sold his plantations and relinquished his authority over the islands to Australia

Iran

was part of Anglo-Russian sphere of influence from 1907 following rivalry between the two super powers but never formally counted as part of British Empire, for this reason we are not including it in list of colonial nations

United Arab Emirates

[From Encyclopaedia Britannica online] The principal sheikhs along the coast signed a series of agreements ... general treaty of peace in 1820, the perpetual maritime truce in 1853 (which gave the Trucial Coast its name), and exclusive agreements in 1892 restricting their foreign relations to British discretion and the sheikhdoms became known as the Trucial States. A council of the Trucial States began to meet semiannually in 1952 to discuss administrative issues. In January 1968, following the announcement by the British government that its forces would be withdrawn from the Persian Gulf by late 1971, Trucial Oman and the sheikhdoms of Qatar and Bahrain initiated plans to form a confederation. After three years of negotiations, however, Qatar and Bahrain decided to become independent sovereign states, and the former Trucial States, excluding Ra's al-Khaymah, announced the formation of the United Arab Emirates in December 1971. Ra's al-Khaymah joined the federation in February 1972. [We have taken this to mean that the UAE was NOT part of the British Empire but just a sphere of influence]

Never part of British Empire

Afghanistan

Armenia

Azerbaijan

Bhutan

Cambodia

Chechnya

China

East Timor

Georgia

Guam

Indonesia

Iran

Japan

Kazakhstan

Korea

Kyrgyzstan

Laos

Lebanon

Macau

Mongolia

Nepal

North Korea

Oman

Philippines

Russia [Siberia]

Saudi Arabia

South Korea

Syria

Taiwan

Tajikistan

Thailand

Tibet

Turkey

Turkmenistan

United Arab Emirates

Uzbekistan

Vietnam

Wrangel Island (Vrangelya Ostrov)

Countries that were part of the British Empire

Andaman Islands India

Australia / Cocos (Keeling) Islands

Bahrain

Bangladesh

Brunei

China [Hong Kong and Wei Hai Wei]

Cocos (Keeling Islands) / Australia

India

Iraq [from 1921 - 1932]

Israel [from 1918]

Jordan [from 1921]

Kuwait [sort of, but counted]

Malaysia

Maldives

Myanmar (Burma)

Nicobar Islands India

Pakistan

Palestine [from 1918]

Qatar [from 1916]

Singapore

Sri Lanka

Yemen

Total number of objects from geographical region

[article ID:10]

40,231, or 22 per cent of the total collections up to 1945

Total number of objects for geographical region divided into archaeological and ethnographic objects

[article ID:11]

Archaeology - 5,871

Ethnography - 33,736

Arch or Ethn - 624

These figures are quite different from the global picture with far more ethnographic objects (83 from 56 per cent) and far fewer archaeology (15 from 34 per cent) and objects that are not clearly archaeological or ethnographic [2 from 10 per cent)

Total number of objects from each Asian country

[article ID:12]

These numbers below are generated [as have all other country totals for all continents] by simply finding the country and counting the total number of objects ie no account is taken of single entries with more than one country assigned to it or double counting. Our assumption has been that this double counting should, more or less, be cancelled out and of little effect (though we do not know this to be true). Asian entries seem particularly beset by double counting of countries for single object and for that reason, for this continent only consistently, we have been through each country and marked which are worst affected by double counting and which countries roughly have been double counted

Afghanistan - 74 [some double counting with India and Russia]

Andaman Islands India - 826 [Vast majority definite, a small amount of double counting with Burma]

Armenia - 7 [some double counting with Greece and Russia]

Australia / Cocos (Keeling) Islands - 0 [excluded from stats from this point]

Azerbaijan - 2 [double counted with other countries, none definite]

Bahrain - 5  [All definite]

Bangladesh - 185*  [All definite]

Bhutan - 13   [double counted with other countries, few definite]

Brunei - 19 [most of the Brunei entries are definite, a few are double counted with   Malaysia etc]

Cambodia - 6   [2 of the Cambodian entries are definite, rest are double counted with neighbouring   countries etc]

Chechnya- 0 [excluded from stats from this point]

China - 3,776   [excluding Hong Kong etc][A very small number of entries double counted   with Mongolia and with India]

China [Hong Kong and Wei Hai Wei] - 64 [all definite Hong Kong]

Cocos (Keeling) Islands / Australia - 0 [excluded from stats from this point]

East Timor - 18   [NB double counting with Indonesia]

Georgia - 16  [All but one definite Georgia, that one Caucasus]

Guam - 0   [excluded from stats from this point]

India - 13,719*  [some double counting with other neighbouring countries such as Nepal]

Indonesia - 785 [the majority are definitely Indonesia, some double countings with Singapore]

Iran - 184  [Vast majority definite]

Iraq - 203  [Majority definite, some double counting with neighbouring countries and   Egypt]

Israel - 2,789 [NB substantial double counting with Palestine and Jordan]

Japan - 4,263 [Vast majority definite]

Jordan - 215   [NB substantial double counting with Palestine and Israel]

Kazakhstan - 3  [All definite]

Korea - 589   [4 are specifically North Korean, 190 are specifically South Korean - both these figures are included in this total from this point it will be considered as an entity, all definitely Korean]

Kuwait - 2  [All definite]

Kyrgyzstan - 0 [excluded from stats from this point]

Laos - 20 [Minority definite, majority double counted with neighbouring countries etc]

Lebanon - 51 [All definite except for those that are double counted with UK?!]

Macau -110  

Malaysia - 3,280 [Vast majority definite, some double counting with Singapore]

Maldives - 2  [All definite]

Mongolia - 315 [the majority are double counted with China]

Myanmar (Burma) - 3038 [Vast majority definite some double counting with Thailand]

Nepal - 167 [Large number double counted with either India or Tibet]

Nicobar Islands India - 605 [All? definite]

North Korea - see Korea above

Oman - 2 [All definite]

Pakistan - 229* [Vast majority definite except small amount of double counting with Afghanistan]

Palestine - 362   [NB substantial double counting with Israel and Jordan]

Philippines - 163 [Vast majority definite some double counting with Malaysia and !Sudan]

Qatar - 0   [excluded from stats from this point]

Russia [Siberia] - 219 [All definite]

Saudi Arabia - 25  [All definite]

Singapore - 133 [Double counting with Malaysia and Indonesia]

South Korea - see Korea above

Sri Lanka - 1,456  [Majority definite some double counting with India etc]

Syria - 192  [Majority definite some double counting with neighbouring countries etc]

Taiwan - 153 [All definite ]

Tajikistan - 0 [excluded from stats from this point]

Thailand - 1,290  [Majority definite some double counting with Burma and Malaysia etc]

Tibet - 474 [Some double counting with neighbouring countries]

Turkey - 344 [Some double counting with neighbouring countries etc]

Turkmenistan - 0 [excluded from stats from this point]

United Arab Emirates - 0 [excluded from stats from this point]

Uzbekistan - 12 [Majority definite, some double counting with neighbouring countries]

Vietnam - 26 [Some double counting with neighbouring countries]

Wrangel Island (Vrangelya Ostrov) - 0 [excluded from stats from this point]

Yemen - 43  [Majority definite, some double counting with Somalia]

'British' India [ie could be either India, Bangladesh or Pakistan] - 1,808

Note that the total count for the whole of British India (that is British India as given above plus India, Pakistan and Bangladesh Nicobar and Andaman Islands separate figures is 17,372

[countries in blue will not be included in statistics in future as there are no objects from them]

India / Bangladesh / Pakistan*

Of course, between 1884 and 1945 India covered all 3 countries and was not differentiated, there are many entries which are not sufficiently well provenanced to enable a single country to be identified and therefore all 3 countries have to be identified leading to a large degree of duplication and double counting. Here are the figures excluding double counting:

Bangladesh - 185

India - 13,719

Pakistan - 229

British India (ie could be any one of the above 3 countries) - 1,808

It is most likely that the highest proportion of the British India entries actually came from modern day India but this can never be known for sure.

Countries in descending order:

India - 13,719*

Japan - 4,263

China - 3,776   [excluding Hong Kong etc]

Malaysia - 3,280

Myanmar (Burma) - 3,038

Israel - 2,789  

'British' India [ie could be either India, Bangladesh or Pakistan] - 1,808

Sri Lanka - 1,456

Thailand - 1,290

Andaman Islands India - 826

Indonesia - 785

Nicobar Islands India - 605

Korea - 589

Tibet - 474

Palestine - 362

Turkey - 344

Mongolia - 315

Pakistan - 229*

Russia [Siberia] - 219

Jordan - 215  

Iraq - 203

Syria - 192

Bangladesh - 185*

Iran - 184

Nepal - 167

Philippines - 163

Taiwan - 153

Singapore - 133

Macau - 110

Afghanistan - 74

China [Hong Kong] - 64

Lebanon - 51

Yemen - 43

Vietnam - 26

Saudi Arabia - 25

Laos - 20

Brunei - 19

East Timor - 18

Georgia - 16

Bhutan - 13

Uzbekistan - 12

Armenia - 7

Cambodia - 6

Bahrain - 5

Kazakhstan - 3

Azerbaijan - 2

Kuwait - 2 

Maldives - 2

Oman - 2

[countries in red were colonies]

India is easily the largest country's collections from Asia, it is nearly 3 times larger than the next largest country, it would be even larger if it had been possible to provenance all those objects which can only be classified as coming from British India.

Two ex-colonies have been excluded from the statistics at this point because there are no objects from these countries:

Cocos (Keeling)

Qatar

SE Asia:

Brunei - 19

Cambodia - 6

Cocos (Keeling) Islands / Australia - 0

East Timor - 18

Indonesia - 785

Laos - 20

Malaysia - 3,280

Myanmar (Burma) - 3,038

Philippines - 163

Singapore - 133

Thailand - 1,290

Vietnam - 26

Total for SE Asia: 8,778 [22 per cent of total Asian collections]

Total number of objects in Asian collections broken down into decades of acquisition

[article ID:13]

1880s - 5,322

1890s - 6,499

1900s - 5,294

1910s - 4,003

1920s - 8,895

1930s - 6,828

1940 - 1945 - 3,266

NB Each countries breakdown for decades is given in Part II of the detailed statistics but here is the full British India figures:

Total number of objects divided into Archaeology and Ethnology

[article ID:14]

Definite archaeology - 5,871

Definite ethnography - 33,736

Arch or ethn - 624

Asia has a much higher percentage of ethnographic objects than globally (83 from 56 per cent) and a comcomitant decrease in archaeology items (from 34 to 15 per cent) and unclear items (from 10 to 2 per cent)

Many of the Asian countries have no archaeological collections at all, the countries that do are: China, Georgia, India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Japan, Jordan, Korea, Lebanon, Malaysia, Burma, Nepal, Pakistan, Siberia, Sri Lanka, Syria, Tibet, Turkey, Yemen and 'British India'

And of these Georgia , Indonesia and Nepal only have one archaeological object each.

Iraq, Israel, Sri Lanka have collections dominated by archaeology.

Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brunei, Cambodia, Hong Kong, East Timor, Kazakhstan, Kuwait, Laos, Macau, Maldives, Nicobar Islands, Oman, Philippines, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Taiwan, Uzbekistan, Vietnam all only have ethnographic objects in their collections up to 1945

NB Each countries breakdown for decades is given in the detailed statistics but here is the full British India figures

British India in its fullest extent is even more exaggeratedly ethnographic than Asia as a whole with almost all the collections being ethnographic

Total of objects from colonial countries = 28,983

Total of objects from non-colonial countries = 13,299

NB these figures contain substantial double counting but luckily not across the colonial / non-colonial boundary but within them such as Palestine Israel and Jordan, however it might have inflated the colonial count at the expense of the non-colonial count

Colonial countries

Country

Archaeology

Ethnography

Arch or eth

Andaman Islands India

0

72

2

Bahrain

0

5

0

Bangladesh

0

185

0

Brunei

0

19

0

China [Hong Kong]

0

64

0

India

1,058

12,506

155

Iraq

176

26

1

Israel

2,474

309

6

Jordan

34

176

5

Kuwait

0

2

0

Malaysia

71

3,043

166

Maldives

0

2

0

Myanmar (Burma)

74

2,944

20

Nicobar Islands India

0

605

0

Pakistan

36

166

27

Palestine

103

256

3

Singapore

0

133

0

Sri Lanka

1,095

360

1

Yemen

3

40

0

'British' India

30

1,751

27

Total for colonial countries

5,154

22,664

413

Afghanistan

0

72

2

Armenia

0

7

0

Azerbaijan

0

2

0

Bhutan

0

13

0

Cambodia

0

6

0

China [excluding Hong Kong etc]

55

3,674

37

East Timor

0

18

0

Georgia

1

15

0

Indonesia

1

783

1

Iran

4

178

2

Japan

509

3,754

0

Kazakhstan

0

3

0

Korea

44

541

4

Laos

0

20

0

Lebanon

21

30

0

Macau

0

110

0

Mongolia

0

314

1

Nepal

1

166

0

Oman

0

2

0

Philippines

0

163

0

Russia [Siberia]

25

193

1

Saudi Arabia

0

25

0

Syria

24

164

4

Taiwan

0

153

0

Thailand

0

1,287

3

Tibet

2

472

0

Turkey

58

284

2

Uzbekistan

0

12

0

Vietnam

0

26

0

Total for non-colonial Asian countries

745

12,487

57

The proportions of the colonial collections from Asia are very similar to the overall Asian collections

Non British colonial Asian countries are even more dominated by ethnographic objects than Asia in general or the colonial collections and the percentage of archaeology is also much smaller.

Archaeology items from countries which had been part of the British Empire are 87 per cent of the total Asian archaeological collection, but only 64 per cent of the ethnographic collections, The colonial collections of objects which are not clearly archaeological or ethnographic also dominate

Asian collections and types of artefacts

[article ID:15]

It is noticeable that, more than any of the other continents, the Asian collections cover all of the classes, there are none of the large number of classes with 10 objects or fewer as there are in some of the other continents, the only exception is signals, a class which has now been deleted because it is not worthy (too few objects globally were assigned to it) - such objects are now classified as musical instruments or insignia in class and signal in keyword - this change took place whilst the Asian statistics were being prepared and therefore we continued to include it in all the statistics as an anachronism

Classes in descending order for Asian countries in general:

Tool - 8,665

Weapon - 8,500

Religion -   5,842

Ornament & bead - 5,131

Toy & Game - 3,292

Figure -   3,138

Clothing - 3,061

Writing - 2,078

Box -   1,983

Music - 1,767

Specimen - 1,757

Status - 1,738

Currency - 1,702

Vessel - 1,642

Textile -  1,451

Food -   1,436

Basketry -   1,382

Narcotic - 1,317

Pottery - 1,209

Picture -   1,144

Fire -   954

Model -   934

Ceremonial - 888

Photograph -   799

Death -   737

Lighting -   705

Geology -   684

Technique - 651

Body Art -   641

Medicine - 633

Toilet - 623

Children - 609

Hunting -   605

Bag -   583

Agriculture -   535

Transport -   526

Plant - 518

Trade -   504

Insignia -   440

Fishing - 430

Measurement -   406

Theatre - 354

Physical Anthropology - 330

Dance -   324

Navigation -   317

Reproduction - 310 

Animal Gear -   303

Dwelling - 303

Cordage - 294

Headhunting - 252

Mask -   248

Animalia - 241

Furniture Dwelling -   238 

Commemoration -   193

Metallurgy - 167

Sport -   112

Marriage - 101

Fan - 90

Lock -   79

Barkcloth -   73

Punishment and  

Torture - 57

Time -   44 

Carving - 28 

Scientific Apparatus - 15

Signal - 7 

Global up to 1945

Asia up to 1945

Position

Type

No. of objects

Position

Type

No of objects

1

Tool

68,459

1

Tool

8,665

2

Weapon

32,794

2

Weapon

8,500

3

Ornament & Bead **

21,345

3

Religion

5,842

4

Religion

15,125

4

Ornament & bead

5,131

5

Pottery

12,597

5

Toy & Game

3,292

6

Figure

9,571

6

Figure

3,138

7

Vessel

7,463

7

Clothing

3,061

8

Clothing

6,846

8

Writing

2,078

9

Specimen

6,722

9

Box

1,983

10

Music

6,038

10

Music

1,767

11

Textile

5,755

11

Specimen

1,757

12

Toy & Game

5,645

12

Status

1,738

13

Food

4,907

13

Currency

1,702

14

Death

4,843

14

Vessel

1,642

15

Box

4,645

15

Textile

1,451

16

Basketry

4,235

16

Food

1,436

17

Currency

3,995

17

Basketry

1,382

18

Narcotic

3,701

18

Narcotic

1,317

19

Writing

3,670

19

Pottery

1,209

20

Measurement

3,325

20

Picture

1,144

Tools and weapons are much closer in numbers than they have been for other continents, Religion and Ornaments and beads reverse ranking for Asia compared to globally, Toy & Game is much more common class in Asia than globally (up from 12 to 5), clothing is a little higher (up from 8 to 7), Writing is much more common (up from 19 to 8) as is Box (up from 15 to 9). Of the lower rankings, Status is more common in Asia (at 12, it is not even in the top 20 for global collections), and also Currency (up from 17 to 13)

Pottery is much less represented in the Asian collections than globally (down from 5 to 19) as are Vessels (down from 7 to 14). Specimens are also slightly less common in these collections (down from 9 to 11) as are Textiles (down from 11 to 15), Food (from 13 to 16)

Tools and weapons in Asia:

Definite tools - 6,376

Definite weapons - 6,211

Tools or weapons - 2,289

There are far fewer tools as a percentage of total collection in the Asian collections than there are globally up to 1945 and slightly more weapons.

Class

British India

India

Pakistan

Bangladesh

Andaman Islands

Nicobar Islands

Totals

Clothing

41

1,412

10

10

46

32

1,551

Figures

140

1,011

9

1

10

36

1,207

Music

72

530

8

23

4

12

649

Ornaments & beads

386

2,556

62

19

143

14

3,180

Pottery

29

405

14

28

19

60

555

Religion

402

1,692

11

10

26

45

2,186

Specimens

27

369

25

1

84

69

575

Vessels

85

650

14

15

47

56

867

Definite Tools

155

1,690

10

0

64

113

2,032

Definite Weapons

486

2,599

29

0

172

86

3,372

Tools or weapons

121

974

47

8

19

1

1,170

Box

43

478

2

0

1

7

531

Toy & Game

99

575

1

6

0

1

682

Writing

94

300

2

6

4

11

419

Total number of objects

1,808

13,719

229

185

826

605

17,372

Nearly a fifth of all entire British India are therefore weapons, and a further nearly a fifth are ornaments and beads.

Asia generally and Beads

It was our impression whilst calculating the Ornaments and Beads sections for countries above that there were far fewer Asian entries that said both Ornament and Bead and also that there were far fewer entries for just beads than in other continents

Collectors represented in the Asian collections

[article ID:16]

Afghanistan - 74

Field collectors:

RC Temple - 15

PRM sources:

OUMNH - 13

RC Temple - 15 [20 per cent]

Andaman Islands India - 826

It is obvious to anyone who knows anything about our Andaman Islands collections that the vast majority of them came in from EH Man (either via the founding collection or OUMNH) in the 1880s

EH Man as field collector: 549 [66 per cent]

PRM sources:

Man objects via Pitt Rivers: 348 [42 per cent]

Man objects via OUMNH: 159 [19 per cent]

Armenia - 7

Michel de Bernoff gave 2 objects, as did J. Oliver Wardrop and ELM Canziani

Azerbaijan - 2

The only 2 items from Azerbaijan were from the same collector Michel de Bernoff

Bahrain - 5

All the Bahrain objects come from James Theodore Bent [field collector and donor)

Bangladesh [definite only] - 185

The majority of the definite Bangladeshi objects are due to objects collected and donated by JP Mills [119 objects or 64 per cent]

Bhutan - 13

The items from the 1880s are just provenanced Himalayas and therefore are double counted in a number of different countries totals they are from Pitt Rivers, many of the other Bhutanese entries might also be India, Tibet or Nepal and from a variety of sources

Brunei - 19

AS Haynes and HL Chittenden are probably the largest donors with 4 and 5 objects respectively [around a quarter of the collections each]

Cambodia - 6

2 of the 3 1880s entries are specifically Cambodian and from Pitt Rivers, the remainder of Cambodian object entries are double counted with other countries nearby

China [excluding HK] - 3,776

RT Turley is probably the most significant field collector with 587 objects [16 per cent]

PRM sources:

Pitt Rivers founding collection: 338

Ashmolean: 216

China [Hong Kong] - 64

WL Hildburgh donated 25 objects

RC Temple donated 35

East Timor - 18

Founding collection (just over fifty per cent) and transfers from the Ashmolean (a sixth of collection)

Georgia - 16

John Abercromby and Percy Manning gave the largest percentages of this collection(7 objects each, just under 50 per cent to each)

India [entries that are definitely India] - 13,719

JH Hutton and JP Mills. These items in fact were not all collected or even received by the Museum in the 1920s (in particular for Hutton many were collected before 1920) but were accessioned under two late 1920s accession numbers as a batch lot.

Field collectors:

JH Hutton - 3,290

JP Mills - 2,762

PRM Sources:

JH Hutton - 3,346

JP Mills - 2,747

Pitt Rivers - 781

Indonesia - 785

HN Ridley gave 74 objects [nearly 10 per cent], and Pitt Rivers gave 55 [7 per cent] but otherwise the Indonesia collections appear to have come from a variety of sources

Iran - 184

The Iranian collections appear to have come from a variety of sources

Iraq - 203

87 of the Iraqi objects came from the Oxford Expedition to Kish [43 per cent]

Israel - 2,789

Field collectors:

Garrod- 1,621[58 per cent]

PRM sources

British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem - 2,410 [86 per cent]

Japan - 4,263

Field collectors:

Chamberlain - 2,006 [47 per cent]

PRM Sources:

Chamberlain - 1,498[35 per cent]

Pitt Rivers - 295[7 per cent]

Jordan - 215

Miss KM Reynolds - 22 objects [just over 10 per cent]

Palestine Folk Museum donated 92 objects [43 per cent](all of them were later returned)

Kazakhstan - 3

No dominating collector each of 3 objects given by different person

Korea - 589

94 objects from S Wakefield or his wife [16 per cent] 80 objects from RT Turley [14 per cent] 54 objects from Balfour [9 per cent]

Kuwait - 2

All from the same donor at the same time [AH Baldwin], these are the only Kuwaiti objects

Laos - 20

50 per cent of the Laos collection came from the Woodthorpe collection via Ida Wilson

Lebanon - 51

27 of the Lebanese objects acquired were donated by Henry Balfour[53 per cent]

Macau

All the Macau objects were collected and donated by RC Temple

Malaysia - 3,280

Field collectors:

Shelford - 261[8 per cent]

Skeat - 300 [9 per cent]

Annandale - 205[6 per cent]

Walker - 248 [8 per cent]

Robinson - 173 [5 per cent]

Brooke [various family members] - 635 [19 per cent]

PRM sources:

Shelford - 310 [9 per cent]

Annandale - 196 [6 per cent]

Walker - 248 [8 per cent]

Brooke [various family members] - 635 [19 per cent]

Maldives - 2

The single Maldives object was donated by Cuthbert Peek

Mongolia - 315

RT Turley was the dominating Mongolian collector with 293 objects donated and 298 objects collected [95 per cent]

Myanmar (Burma) - 3,038

RC Temple donated 1,531 objects and collected 1,550 [51 per cent]

Nepal - 167

A variety of sources and collectors

Nicobar Islands India - 605

EH Man collected 530 of the objects [88 per cent] and they came in via the OUMNH and the founding collection

Oman - 2

The two objects came from different sources

Pakistan - 229

A variety of different sources for the material

Palestine - 362

92 of the objects came from the Palestine Folk Museum and were returned [25 per cent] , 57 came from the British School of Archaeology in Jerusalem, (collected by Turville-Petre) [16 per cent]

Philippines - 163

A collection from Mrs Turnbull [collected by her son [67 objects 41 per cent]

Russia [Siberia] - 219

Czaplicka collected and donated 193 objects [88 per cent]

Saudi Arabia - 25

William Crooke donated 17 objects [68 per cent]

Singapore - 133

Henry Nicholas Ridley donated 63 of the objects [47 per cent]

Sri Lanka - 1456

Seligman collected and donated 518 objects [36 per cent]

Charles Hartley collected 569 and donated 581 objects [39 per cent]

Syria - 192

HH Spoer donated 44 objects [23 per cent] Miss KM Reynolds 31 [16 per cent]

Taiwan - 153

PE Matheson - 58 objects[collected by Harry C Matheson] [38 per cent]

PE O'Brien-Butler23 objects [15 per cent]

Thailand - 1290

Annandale donated 1040 objects [81 per cent]

Tibet - 474

From a variety of sources

Turkey - 344

Founding collection - 53 objects [15 per cent]

Ashmolean - 28 objects [8 per cent]

RM Dawkins - 72 objects (collected and donated) - 21 per cent]

Uzbekistan - 12

PalestineFolk Musuem, 10 objects, which in fact were later returned [83 per cent]

Vietnam - 26

Rosset expedition via the BM [13 objects, half the collection]

Yemen - 43

AW Fullerdonated 14 objects [33 per cent]

British India - 1,808

Pitt Rivers donated 352 objects [19 per cent] , the Ashmolean 193 objects [11 per cent], the Indian Institute 166 [9 per cent] - there are a variety of other sources and collectors

ESRC 'Relational Museum'

October 2003

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The financial support of this project by the ESRC is gratefully acknowledged.