Charles Seligman Beatrice Blackwood PRM Museum John Hutton Henry Balfour Edward Tylor Augustus Fox

Pitt Rivers Museum Europe collections up to 1945 Statistics Part I

1. What was colonial history of geographical area

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Europe is a large continent with a long recorded history but it was infrequently directly affected by colonialisation by the UK.

Sandra Dudley compiled the following lists as part of the pilot ESRC project:

Cyprus

1878 – the Ottoman Empire places it under British administration

1914 – completely annexed by Britain

1960 – independence

Gibraltar 

1704 – becomes a colony; remains British

Heligoland *1807 – the island is seized from Denmark

1890 – ceded to Germany

Ionian Islands

*1815 – become British Protectorate

1864 – ceded to Greece

Ireland

*1171 – Henry II begins the rule of Ireland from British mainland

1801 – Act of Union

1921 – all but the 6 counties of Ulster gain independence as Irish Free State

1937 – becomes Eire

1949 – becomes Republic of Ireland

Malta

1814 – formally annexed

1947 – self-government

1964 – full independence

Minorca

1713 – ceded to Britain under Treaty of Utrecht

1802 – ceded to Spain

We shall therefore count as colonies for the purposes of the ESRC project (for the entirety of the period which is being examined ie 1884 - 1945 inclusive):

Cyprus

Gibraltar

Malta

Ireland We will not include in the colonial statistics, it is extremely difficult to split a single country by time

2. List countries included in geographical region

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Albania

Andorra

Austria

Belarus

Belgium

Bosnia Herzegovina Yugoslavia

Bulgaria

Croatia Yugoslavia

Cyprus

Czech Republic

Denmark

Estonia

Finland

France

Germany

Gibraltar

Greece

Hungary

Iceland

Ireland

Italy

Latvia

Liechtenstein

Luxembourg

Lithuania

Macedonia Yugoslavia

Malta

Moldova

Monaco

Montenegro Yugoslavia

The Netherlands

Norway

Poland

Portugal

Romania

Russia [excluding Siberia which should be in Asia]

San Marino

Serbia Yugoslavia

Slovakia

Slovenia

Spain

Sweden

Switzerland

UK

Ukraine

Vatican City

Yugoslavia

NB we have excluded Turkey as such as small part of it geographically is in Europe and so much in Asia. We have also excluded Georgia which we will also include in the Asian statistics.

NB countries in red were UK colonies. Russia excludes Siberia which is also Asian

3. Total number of objects from geographical region

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There are 41,898 objects from Europe in the PRM collections up to 1945, 23 per cent of the overall collections up to that date.

4. Total number of objects for geographical region divided into archaeological and ethnographic objects

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Definite archaeological items - 26,575

Definite ethnographic items - 14,400

Possible arch or ethn items - 923

5. Total number of objects obtained from each country of region

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Albania - 179

Andorra - 3

Austria - 424

Belarus - 4

Belgium - 455

Bosnia Herzegovina - 155

Bulgaria - 13

Croatia - 48

Cyprus - 424

Czech Republic - 32

Denmark - 822

Estonia - 4

Finland - 176

France - 4,683

Germany - 637

Gibraltar - 1

Greece - 554

Hungary - 91

Iceland - 79

Ireland - 324 [excluding UK]

[*NB double counting with UK is very common - 547 objects could be either UK or Ireland]

Italy - 2,123

Latvia - 4

Liechtenstein - 0 [this country will be ignored in all further statistics]

Lithuania - 4

Luxembourg - 0 [this country will be ignored in all further statistics]

Macedonia - 13

Malta - 435

Moldova - 0 [this country will be ignored in all further statistics]

Monaco- 0 [this country will be ignored in all further statistics]

Montenegro - 61

The Netherlands - 138

Norway - 579

Poland - 31

Portugal - 184

Romania - 22

Russia [exclude Siberia which should be in Asia] - 475 [NB although Siberia is omitted some places that are in Siberia but don't say so may still be included]

San Marino- 0 [this country will be ignored in all further statistics]

Serbia - 24

Slovakia - 2

Slovenia - 2

Spain - 410

Sweden - 650

Switzerland - 835

UK - 25,596 [excluding Ireland * see above][

Ukraine - 78

Vatican City - 8

Yugoslavia- 0 [this country will be ignored in all further statistics]

Note usual caveats about double counting between countries.



Countries in descending order of number of objects:

UK - 25,596 [excluding Ireland]

France - 4,683

Italy - 2,123

Switzerland - 835

Denmark - 822

Sweden - 650

Germany - 637

Norway - 579

Greece - 554

UK or Ireland - 547

Russia [exclude Siberia] - 475

Belgium - 455

Malta - 435

Austria - 424

Cyprus - 424

Spain - 410

Ireland - 324 [excluding UK]

Portugal - 184

Albania - 179

Finland - 176

Bosnia Herzegovina - 155

The Netherlands - 138

Hungary - 91

Iceland - 79

Ukraine - 78

Montenegro - 61

Croatia - 48

Czech Republic - 32

Poland - 31

Serbia - 24

Romania - 22

Bulgaria - 13

Macedonia - 13

Vatican City - 8

Belarus - 4

Estonia - 4

Latvia - 4

Lithuania - 4

Andorra - 3

Slovakia - 2

Slovenia - 2

Gibraltar - 1

UK is by far the largest collection of objects, France is the next largest but that is twice the size of the third (Italy) and all other European countries have collections under a 1000 objects strong with 21 countries have collections of less than a hundred objects.

In other words, over three-quarters of all European objects in the PRM up to 1945 were from three European countries, France, Italy and most importantly the UK.

UK

England - 22,510

Wales - 606

Scotland - 847

Northern Ireland - [excluding only possible Northern Ireland objects] - 687

Channel Islands - 360

Unspecified UK - 604

Scilly Isles - 22

Isle of Man - 81

Descending order of number of objects:

England - 22,510

Scotland - 847

Northern Ireland - [excluding only possible Northern Ireland objects] - 687

Wales - 606

Unspecified UK - 604

Isle of Man - 81

Channel Islands - 36

Scilly Isles - 22

Total UK objects (calculated not by adding countries together but by totalling separate UK database) - 25,598

A truly staggering results for a museum that considers itself to be a museum covering the world and all its objects, 13 per cent of them come from the home country!! [As an aside we calculated the same thing for the position as at today:

Which shows that that percentage of UK objects of the whole collection has actually gone up to 16 per cent, and England has only slight declined as a percentage to 12%.

6. Total number of objects accessioned from each country broken down into decades

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Europe:

The peak in the 1880s is due to the large number of European objects given as part of the founding collection by Augustus Henry Lane Fox Pitt Rivers and presumably also those items transferred from the Ashmolean Museum and the University Museum of Natural History. Many of these objects were of course acquired early than the 1880s.

Albania:

The peaks in the 1930s and particularly the 1940s are because Mary Edith Durham's collection was acquired in these decades.

Andorra:

All Andorran objects were acquired in the 1910s from Beatrice Braithwaite Batty [see biographies]

Austria:

Belarus:

The two Belarus items came in the 1900s, both from Michel de Bernoff.

Belgium:

Bosnia Herzegovina Yugoslavia:

Interestingly a lot of the peaks in the Bosnian collections are due to two people, from my point of view one of these is expected (Mary Edith Durham), the other is unexpected (Henry Balfour who appears to have given and possibly collected the 1890s material and part of the 1930s material - presumably possibly all in the 1890s if he did collect it.

Bulgaria

12 items were acquired from Bulgaria during the 1880s by the Museum - all from founding collection so they could easily have been collected much earlier. One item was acquired in the 1930s.

Croatia Yugoslavia

This is a very small number of objects overall, but the 1930s and 1940s peaks are again due to collections received from Mary Edith Durham

Cyprus

The peak in the 1880s is mostly due to the Cypriot items from the founding collection which were mostly collected prior to the 1880s by Cesnola etc. So in fact this collection probably predates colonialisation meaning that nearly half the Cypriot collection probably predates colonialisation of that country (colonialisation from 1878, collection amassed by 1880). The 1920s peak is mainly due to a collection from Hornblower.

Czech Republic

4 objects were acquired in the 1880s, 1 in the 1890s, 4 in the 1920s and 23 in the 1930s. The 'peak' in the 1930s was principally due to a collection being acquired from Pospisil, the Director of the Ethnographic museum in Brno.

Denmark

The vast majority of objects obtained in the 1880s were from the founding collection and were probably acquired by Pitt Rivers before 1880. All but 30 of these objects are also archaeological

Estonia

All the Estonia objects were obtained in the 1890s [actually in 1897 from one collector Dr. Paul Gahtgens]

Finland

The peak of Finnish objects obtained during the Second World War were actually field collected in 1873 by Arthur Evans and donated via his daughter after his death.

France

The second largest European collection, there are two decades with more substantial collections - the 1880s and 1910s. The first is principally due to the large number of French archaeological objects donated by Pitt Rivers (all but about 200 objects are in this category), the second is also due principally to an archaeological collection, this time given by Henry Balfour.

Germany

Gibraltar

The only Gibraltar item was acquired by the Museum in 1939 after Balfour's death but had been collected in 1895 (possibly by Balfour). He may well have stopped in Gibraltar on a ship en route for another destination.

Greece

Over half of the 1880s peak is due to items from the founding collection.

Hungary

A remarkably consistent low level of acquisitions per decade (except 1940s)

Iceland

Ireland

All the objects in the 1880s Irish collections come from the founding collection (and almost all archaeological).

Possibly Ireland or UK [Northern Ireland]

Most of the objects in the 1880s peak come from the founding collection (which is generally not very well provenanced) and yet again it is also mostly archaeological

Italy

Both Canziani and Hildburgh collections came in in the 1940s

Latvia

All 4 Latvia objects (2 pairs of shoes) were acquired in 1897 from Gähtgens.

Lithuania

One Lithuanian item came in during 1900s and the other 2 in the 1910s.

Macedonia Yugoslavia

No objects came from Macedonia in the 1880s, 1 in the 1890s, none in the 1900s, 1 in the 1910s, 3 in the 1930s and 8 in the 1940s (most of the latter from ME Durham)

Malta

Malta was a colonial possession throughout this period, the two peaks relate to some items from Henry Balfour (a visit to the island?) and Theodore Zammit, a museum professional [1910s] and a variety of sources [1920s]

Montenegro Yugoslavia

Again the small peak in the 1940s is due to the collection from ME Durham

The Netherlands

The peak in the 1930s is because of a large donation from Henry Balfour mostly donated in the early 1930s or after death as bequest

Norway

There doesn't seem to be any particular reason for the reasonably high number of Norwegian acquisitions in the 1940s (it is spread among quite a few donors / collectors) but there does seem to be quite a few Norwegian objects acquired from Balfour in the 1930s.

Poland

Portugal

The large number of items acquired in the 1910s include a collection of Portugeuse lace from Flora Shelford (collected by Mrs Bland).

Romania

1 item was obtained in the 1890s, 9 in the 1910s, 1 in the 1920s, 5 in the 1930s and 5 in the 1940s.

Russia

Serbia Yugoslavia

2 objects were obtained in the 1880s, 1 in the 1900s, 3 in the 1910s, 8 in the 1930s, and 10 in the 1940s (ME Durham again).

Slovakia

Both Slovakian objects were obtained in the 1930s by the same donor (H. Peach)

Slovenia

One possible Slovenian object was acquired in the 1880s but collected before 1874 (founding collection) , the other was acquired in the 1930s as a bequest from Balfour (and again is not certainly Slovenian)

Spain

The peak in the 1910s and 1920s does not seem to come from one source

Sweden

The peak in the 1930s is due to Balfour's bequest, presumably a good deal of these objects were collected by him earlier in his career

Switzerland

The peak in the 1880s is all due to the founding collection and all but 2 objects are archaeological. The peak in the 1900s is not due to one source.

UK

The peak in the 1880s is almost entirely down to the large UK (actually principally English) collection from Pitt Rivers in 1884 - 5855 of the 6632 objects given in this decade are archaeological objects given by Pitt Rivers from the UK. The second peak in the 1920s is due to the Alexander Montgomerie Bell collection given by Archibald Bell (again principally of stone tools).

England

For reasons for peaks in 1880s and 1920s see above [UK]

Scotland

Wales

The peak in 1930s is due to mostly due to a collection of stone tools from Wales from Eustace Fulcrand Bosanquet

Northern Ireland

The peak in the 1880s is due to the large number of Ireland archaeological items in the founding collection

Channel Islands

The peak in the 1910s is due to Marett and the Societe Jersaise and its and his archaeological activity

Isle of Man

79 objects were acquired in the 1880s from the Isle of Man most from Ernest Bickersteth   Savage or from the founding collection, 1 in the 1890s and 1 in the 1910s.

Scilly Islands

Most of the Scilly Islands material came in the 1930s, 1 in the 1940s mostly from Eustace Fulcrand Bosanquet

Ukraine

Vatican City

All the Vatican City objects were obtained by bequest from Henry Balfour

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